英和対訳:豊臣秀吉の朝鮮出兵:文禄の役(壬辰倭乱)(1592-93)

Toyotomi Hideyoshi's Korean Invasions: the Bunroku Campaign (1592-93)

近代以前の朝鮮で最大の戦乱は,豊臣秀吉の朝鮮出兵である.日本では農民から関白の地位にまで出世を遂げた知恵者として人気の高い秀吉であるが,朝鮮ではプンシンスギルとして最大級の悪者扱いされている.
The greatest war that Korea experienced before modern ages was Japan's invasions carried out by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Hideyoshi, who made his way from a mere peasant to the rank of the chancellor by his wit, is one of the most popular historical characters in Japan. To Koreans, however, he is known as Pungsinsugil and is nothing but an archenemy.
1587年,博多にいた秀吉のもとに対馬の大名宗氏が服属を申し入れてきたのに対し,秀吉は朝鮮国王に入貢させることを命じた.このとき,秀吉は九州平定の途上だったが,すでに朝鮮,中国までも攻め込むと豪語していた.秀吉にとって,朝鮮は中国征服の足がかりでしかなかったのだった.
When, in 1587, the lord of Tsushima came to pledge allegiance to Hideyoshi at Hakata, Kyushu, Hideyoshi charged him with the task of persuading the Korean King to pay tribute to Hideyoshi. Hideyoshi, then on his campaign to conquer Kyushu, was already boasting that he would invade Korea and China. To him, Korea was nothing but a foothold on his way to conquer China.
日本と朝鮮の間の海上に位置し,資源も乏しい対馬は,日本と朝鮮の交易を仲介することしか存続の道はない.しかし,秀吉からの強い要求を受け,やむなく当主の宗義智自らが朝鮮に乗り込み,ともかく1590年に使節を派遣することが決定された.
To Tsushima, which was in the strait between Japan and Korea and did not abound in resources, the only way to survive was mediate trade between Japan and Korea. Pressed by Hideyoshi, however, its lord, So Yoshitoshi, visited Korea himself and won its agreement to send an envoy in 1590.
使節派遣に先立つ贈り物の交換で,日本からは火縄銃が朝鮮に贈られた.1543年にポルトガル船によって日本にもたらされた火縄銃は,戦国の世で改良が進められ,戦術を大きく変えていた.しかし,数百年にわたる太平の世にあった朝鮮では,この火縄銃が顧みられることはなかった.
Prior to the despatch of the envoys, gifts were exchanged between the two countries, in which Japan sent Korea an arquebus. Firearms, first brought to Japan by a Portuguese vessel in 1543, had been much improved in the age of the warring states and transformed the battlefield tactics in Japan. The arquebus, however, drew no attention in Korea, which had been in time of peace for centuries.
1590年,朝鮮からの使者が来日した.小田原攻めを終わらせ京都に戻った秀吉は,三か月も待たせた使者をあっさりとした宴で迎えた.形式的な挨拶のあと,秀吉は幼児(嫡子鶴松)を抱いてきたかと思うと,おもらしをしたと言っては笑いながら乳母に渡すなどし,使節への礼を著しく欠くふるまいだった.
In 1590, the Korean envoys arrived in Japan. Hideyoshi returned to Kyoto after successfully ending the siege of Odawara. The envoys, who had been kept waiting for three months, were received with a simple feast. Moreover, after the ceremonial greetings, Hideyoshi left the room and came in with an infant (his heir Tsurumatsu) in his arms. When the baby wet his clothes, Hideyoshi handed the boy to the nurse with an unscrupulous laughter, showing his complete lack of respect to the envoys.
当然ながら,朝鮮国王からの国書は服属を誓うものではなかった.それを見た秀吉は使節に返書さえ与えようとしなかった.ようやく引き出した国書は朝鮮に対する侮辱に満ちており,その上,明の征服の意図を公言し,当然のように朝鮮の協力を求めるものだった.
As was expected, the letter from the Korean King was not one of homage. Seeing that, Hideyoshi would not give a reply. After much trouble the envoys obtained a reply. But it was full of insults to the Koreans and boasted of Hideyoshi's intention of conquering China, in which he expected Korea's cooperation as if it were a matter of course.
使節が戻った朝鮮では,国王宣祖(ソンジョ)臨席の御前会議で対応が検討された.しかし,朝鮮の政界は東人党,西人党の派閥争いが幅をきかせていた.正使が日本の出兵は間違いないと進言しても,副使がそれを否定するのだった.結局,出兵は当面ないだろうとの見方で決着した.
When the ambassadors returned, a council was held in the presence of King Sonjo to discuss the course to take. In the political circles of Korea, however, strife between the Eastern Faction and the Western Faction affected everything. When the senior ambassador warned that Japan's invasion was a certainty, his deputy contradicted him. In the end, the council concluded that Japan would not launch an invasion for the time being.
一方,朝鮮出兵の意図が公にされた日本では,あまりのことに諸将の間では不満が広まった.だが,おおやけに異を唱える者もないまま,徳川家康,前田利家という最有力大名が賛成したことでことは決せられた.この徳川,前田の両家が朝鮮出兵に一兵たりとも出さなかったことは象徴的である.
Meanwhile, Hideyoshi's publicized intention of invading Korea, in turn, stunned the lords and generals. But nobody dared to raise an objection and when the two most powerful daimyo Tokugawa Ieyasu and Maeda Toshiie expressed their approval, the matter was fixed. It seems significant that neither Tokugawa nor Maeda was required to send troops to the expedition.
1591年の末,秀吉は北九州に出撃拠点となる壮大な名護屋城をわずか2か月にして完成させた.ここから対馬を経て朝鮮半島南部の釜山まではほんの一日の航程である.
In the end of 1591, Hideyoshi built in only two month Nagoya Castle in Northern Kyushu to be used as a base of the expedition. From this place, Pusan at the southern end of the Korean Peninsula is only a day's voyage via Tsushima.
1592年4月12日の午前中に日本の船団が目撃されたとき,慶尚右水使の元均は通商目的だろうと判断した.夕刻になってさらに大規模な船団の報告が届いてようやく事態の深刻さを悟った.慶尚左水使は艦隊を沈め,武器や物資を破壊して逃げ去った.元均もわずか四隻の船で避難した.こうして日本軍は抵抗を受けることなく朝鮮半島に上陸することに成功したのである.
In the morning of April 12th, 1592, when a Japanese fleet was sighted, Won Kyun, the Right Naval Commander of Kyongsang, took it for a convoy on a trade mission. Towards the evening, a further report came of a great fleet and Won Kyun at last realized that something very serious was happening. His colleague, the Lef Naval Commander of Kyongsang, fled after scuttling his fleet and destroying all the armaments and provisions. Won Kyun in his turn sought saftey with only four ships. Thus the Japanese armada successfully disembarked its army on the Korean Peninsula without resistance.
1592年4月13日早朝,釜山攻撃が開始された.釜山はたちまちにして陥落,その背後の東ネ(この地方の中心地)も15日には陥落した.
In the early morning of April 13th (lunar calendar), 1592, the Japanese began its attack on Pusan. In no time Pusan fell and Tongnae behind it (the headquarters of the region) followed it.
小西行長率いる日本軍は首都漢城(現在のソウル)を目指して北上した.尚州でわずかばかりの朝鮮守備兵をけちらした日本軍1万8000は,ほとんど無傷のまま忠州に至り,8000ほどの朝鮮軍と対峙した.朝鮮軍の騎兵は日本軍の一斉射撃の前に総崩れとなった.加藤清正麾下の第二軍は慶州を焼いた.
The Japanese army led by Konishi Yukinaga marched north toward the capital Seoul (then called Hansong). They beat the meager defenders at Sangju and at Ch'ungju, little reduced from its original strength of 18,000, faced the 8,000-strong Koreans. Korean cavalry was put to rout by the volleys of the Japanese arquebus. The second army under Kato Kiyomasa burnt Kyongju.
この報せが漢城に届くと,4月30日,国王は平壌に逃れるべく漢城をあとにした.日本軍が迫ると,漢城の防衛軍は逃げ去り,5月3日,漢城は日本軍の手に落ちた.
The report reached the capital and the King left Seoul on April 30th for Pyongyang. When the Japanese army drew near, the defenders of the capital fled. On May 3rd, the Japanese seized Seoul.
日本軍の勢いはとどまるところを知らず,北上した日本軍はたちまちにして平壌に迫った.国王はさらに北,明との国境方面に逃れ,6月15日,日本軍は平壌までも占領した.
Nothing seemed to stop the advance of the Japanese. They marched north and soon approached Pyongyang. The King fled further north toward the border with Ming and on June 15 the Japanese occupied Pyongyang.
だが,当然ながら義兵の蜂起が相次ぎ,日本軍はそれを掃討するために村落を焼き払っていった.日本による占領態勢はきわめて危うい基盤の上に成立していた.
But, naturally, Korean volunteers rose everywhere and to suppress it the Japanese burnt the villages. The Japanese administration of the occupied land stood on a very precarious basis.

こうして短期間で朝鮮半島を席巻した日本軍だったが,朝鮮半島南西部の全羅道だけはまだ勢力下に収めていなかった.慶尚水軍が戦わずして逃げたのち,その西の全羅水軍の左水使李舜臣は陸上での戦況を見守りながら戦備を整えていた.
The Japanese swept over the Korean Peninsula in a short time but Cholla (southwestern part of the Korean Peninsula) was not in her control. After the Kyongsang navy fled without fighting, the Cholla navy was preparing for a campaign under the Left Naval Commander of the Cholla Province, Yi Sun-shin.
日本軍が漢城入りした翌日の5月4日,李舜臣はついに出撃し,日本船の姿を求めて東に向かった.5月7日,巨済島東岸の玉浦で日本船団を発見した李舜臣は攻撃を開始した.
On May 4, the day after the Japanese occupation of Seoul, Yi Sun-shing sailed at last eastward seeking the sight of the Japanese fleet. On May 7, he found the enemy at Okp'o (on the east coast of Koje Island) ordered to attack.
陸上では精巧な火縄銃で優位にあった日本軍だが,海上では昔ながらの敵船に乗り込んでの戦術に頼っており,距離をとって大砲で攻撃をしかける朝鮮艦隊の戦術にはなすすべもなかった.二日間にわたる戦いで李舜臣は多数の日本船を撃沈した.
Superior as the Japanese were on land because of the sophisticated arquebus, they still relied on old tactics of boarding enemy vessels in sea battles. They were no match for the Korean fleet's gunfire from a distance. In the two-day battle, Yi Sun-shing sank many Japanese vessels.
次いで5月29日,李舜臣は新兵器亀甲船を含めた艦隊で泗川湾からおびき出した日本艦隊をたたきのめした.さらに6月2日の唐浦の海戦,6月5日の唐項浦の海戦と李舜臣指揮下の朝鮮水軍は勝利を重ねていった.
Then, on May 29, Yi Sun-shin led a fleet including a newly constructed turtle ships and beat the Japanese fleet lured out of Sach'on Bay. The Korean fleet under him won further victories at the Battles of Tangp'o (June 2) and Tanghangp'o (June 5).
日本側も李舜臣に本格的に対処することにした.陸上からも全羅道侵攻をうかがう日本軍の意図をくじくため,李舜臣のほうでも日本水軍との決戦を求めた.
The Japanese were determined to deal with Yi Sun-shin in earnest. Yi Sun-shin, on his part, sought battle with the Japanese fleet in order to frustrate the Japanese advance on land into the Cholla Province.
地元住民から日本水軍の位置を知らされた李舜臣は7月7日,見乃梁の海峡から開けた海域に日本船団をおびき出した.閑山島沖のこの海戦で,李舜臣は鶴翼の陣という隊形を取って日本艦隊を完膚なきまでにたたきのめし,二日後のAngolp'oの海戦で増援にきた日本艦隊も破った.
On July 7, receiving reports from the local residents about the position of the Japanese vessels, Yi Sun-shin lured the enemy fleet in the strait of Kyonnaeryang into open sea. In the ensuing Battle off Hansando, he employed a crane's-wing formation and destroyed the Japanese thoroughly. Two days later, he beat the Japanese reinforcement at the Battle of Angolp'o.
北方では6月15日に平壌が日本軍の手に落ちていたが,半島南部での制海権は完全に李舜臣のものとなった.
While in the north Pyongyang was held by the Japanese since June 15, the command of the sea in the south waters was secure for the Koreans.

大国,明が参戦したのはちょうどこのころのことだった.秀吉の明征服の意図は早くから明の朝廷にも伝わっており,5月3日の日本軍の漢城入りも19日には伝えられた.朝鮮国王の要請に応え,6月中旬に鴨緑江を越えて朝鮮にはいった遼東からの明国軍は,7月中旬になって動き出し,16日に平壌奪還を試みたものの,あえなく撤退した.
It was about this time that the great power Ming China entered the scene. Hideyoshi's intention of conquering China had reached the Ming court earlier and the news of the Japanese occupation of Seoul on May 3 arrived there on 19. The Ming army from Liaodong, crossing the Yalu and entering Korea in middle June in answering the plea of the Korean King, started operations in middle July and attempted to recaputre Pyongyang on July 16. But they were repulsed without difficulty.
同じころ,半島東北部の咸鏡道に向かった加藤清正は,朝鮮側の不満分子の協力で朝鮮の王子二名を捕虜にすることに成功した(7月23日).清正は9月初旬には一時満州にまで攻め込んだ(これには日ごろ女真人の襲撃に悩まされていた朝鮮人も協力した).
Meanwhile, another Japanese army under Kato Kiyomasa detached to Hamgyong Province in the north-eastern part of the Peninsula took the two Korean princes prisoner with the cooperation of Korean dissidents (July 23). In early September, he even made a short-duration invasion into part of China (for once the Koreans were cooperative because they had been harrassed by the raids of the Jurchens).
しかし,清正が咸興に戻ると(9月7日),平定したばかりの地域はたちまち反乱状態になった.日本軍は一連の城塞を押さえることができても,朝鮮国民を支配することはできなかった.
But no sooner than Kiyomasa returned to Hamhung (September 7), the country just conquered turned back into a rebellion. The Japanese could hold a series of forts but could not control the Korean people.
拠点となるべき南部でも,制海権を李舜臣に奪われたことから日本軍の勢力範囲は釜山周辺の限られた地域のみに後退していた.事態を打破するため,2万の日本軍が西方に向かい,10月4日には重要拠点である晋州城の前に至った.しかし,わずか3,800の城兵は果敢に抵抗し,日本軍を後退させた.この朝鮮側の最大の勝利を導いた金時敏(キムシミン)は激戦のさなかに命を落とした.(なお,このとき,朝鮮側は日本のものに引けを取らない火縄銃170丁を用意して初めて実戦に投入した.)
Even in the south, critically important to the Japanese supply line, Admiral Yi's supremacy in the sea pushed back the Japanese control into a small area around Pusan. To break the situation, 20,000 Japanese army marched west and on October 4 arrived before the critical stronghold of Chinju. However, the garrison of only 3,800 gave a determined resistance and pushed back the Japanese. The defense commander Kim Shi-min who achieved this greatest Korean victory in the whole campaign was killed in the fierce battle. (By the way, the Koreans had 170 arquebuses of quality comparable to Japanese ones and put them into use for the first time.)
冬も迫っている.明の仲介者沈惟敬(シンイケイ)から講和の話をもちかけられると,小西行長も応じることにした.朝鮮の頭越しに,明と日本による朝鮮分割の話までもちだされたが,日本側の要求に明側が反発し,11月になると沈惟敬は態度を一変させて,日本軍の撤退と捕虜にした二王子の返還を求めてきた.
Winter was approaching. Considering the situation, the commander Konishi Yukinaga agreed to the Chinese proposal for negotiating peace brought by a mediator . At one time, negatiation might have led to partition of Korea between China and Japan but the demand of the Japanese were too much for the Chinese. In Novermber, the Chinese hardened his attitude and demanded the withdrawal of the Japanese troops and the return of the two captive princes.
こうして交渉は決裂し,1593年1月,4万を越える明の大軍が平壌の日本軍を攻撃した.その数もさることながら,明国軍の大砲の威力は日本軍に大打撃を与えた.日本軍は雪に覆われた道を漢城まで撤退した.
The negotiations were broken off and in January, 1593, a huge Ming army of more than forty thousand attacked the Japanese in Pyongyang. It was not only the matter of the numbers. The heavy firepower of the Chinese cannon inflicted a severe damage to the Japanese. The Japanese were forced to withdraw in the snow-covered country all the way to Seoul.
追撃する明国軍は漢城に迫り,日本軍は決死の構えでこれを迎え撃った.1月26日の碧蹄館(ピョクチェグワン)の戦いで,火器をもたない騎兵を中心にした明国軍は日本軍に大敗を喫して後退した.
The pursuing Ming army approached Seoul and the desperate Japanese countered this force. In the Battle of Pyokje lodging [Pyokje-yek, Byokchekwan] on January 26, the Ming cavalry without firearm suffered a crushing defeat and was forced to retreat.
この戦いに先駆け漢城北方の幸州が朝鮮軍の手に落ちており,明国軍を追い払った日本軍はこの再奪取に向かった.2月12日,わずか4000の兵が守る幸州に日本軍30,000が攻撃をかけたが,守備隊の必至の抵抗の前に撤退した.閑山島の海戦,晋州防衛と並んでこの幸州防衛は朝鮮にとっての三大勝利に数えられる.
The Japanese tried to retake Haengju, north to Seoul, which had been recaptured by the Koreans shortly before the Battle of Pyokje. On February 12, the 30,000-strong Japanese army attacked Haengju but the mere 4,000-strong garrison repulsed the attack with a desperate resistance. The defense of Haengju is regarded as one of the three great victories for the Koreans, with the naval Battle of Hansando and the defense of Chinju as the other two.
休戦交渉が行なわれ,日本軍は漢城を放棄して釜山まで撤退することになった.4月18日,日本軍はソウルを出,6月上旬には釜山周辺までの引き上げを完了した.
Truce was negotiated and it was decided that the Japanese would evacuate Seoul and retreat to Pusan. On April 18, the Japanese left Seoul and in early June they withdrew to the area around Pusan.
日本軍は釜山を中心にとんね,金海,熊川,巨済島,加徳島などを固めて長期戦に備えた.明側は泗川,慶州などに陣取って日本軍の監視にあたった.
The Japanese fortified such places around Pusan as Tongnae, Kimhae, Ungch'on, Koje Island and Kadok Island in view of a prolonged war. The Ming army watched them from such stations as Sach'on or Kyongju.
南部に拠点を据えることにした日本軍は全羅道攻略の要となる晋州の攻略に取りかかった.昨年失敗した晋州城の奪取は,漢城からの撤兵を承認した秀吉からの厳命でもあった.日本軍は空前の9万をこの攻撃に投入し,6月22日に包囲を開始して29日には陥落させた.義兵にさんざん悩まされてきた日本軍は,その憂さを晴らすかのように,兵士も民間人も問わず6万名を虐殺した.明軍からは若干の前衛のほかは援軍は送られなかった.
The Japanese set on a campaign to capture Chinju, a gateway to the Cholla province, with intentions of securing the south. The capture of Chinju, in which they failed the previous year, was an absolute imperative from Hideyoshi, who had grudgingly admitted the evacuation of Seoul. The Japanese committed a total of 90,000 in this campaign, an unparalleld number throughout the entire war. Starting the siege on June 22, they took the town. Long harassed by the guerrilla war of the Korean volunteers, the Japanese took this occasion to massacre 60,000 soldiers and civilians. There was no relief from the Ming army except for some vanguards.
この勝利にもかかわらず,大明征服という秀吉の大風呂敷が破綻したことは明らかだった.秀吉はこの8月に名護屋をあとにして京都に戻った.それから年末にかけて,沿岸部の一連の城に守備兵を残して将兵たちは相次いで日本に帰国した.
Despite this victory, it was obvious now that there was not a faintest hope for Hideyoshi's great desire to conquer the great Ming. Hideyoshi left Nagoya in August and returned to Kyoto. By the end of the year, the Japanese army returned home leaving garrisons in a series of coastal castles.

参考文献:
上垣外憲一(1989, 2002): 文禄・慶長の役 空虚なる御陣
Turnbull, Stephen (2002): Samurai Invasion Japan's Korean War 1592-1598



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